How to Write a CV: A Step-by-Step Guide for 2023

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A CV, short for Curriculum Vitae, is a detailed document highlighting your professional qualifications, education, and experiences relevant to your career. The main purpose of a CV is to showcase your suitability as a candidate to potential employers.

Unlike a resume, a CV is more comprehensive and academic-focused. It goes beyond a standard resume to provide an extensive overview of your life accomplishments so far. The details and length of a CV allow you to demonstrate the development of your career and depth of your expertise.

Writing an effective CV is crucial to stand out from the competition during job applications. With some strategic planning and presentation, your CV can be your greatest asset. Follow this step-by-step guide to crafting a compelling CV that will catch employers’ attention.

CV vs. Resume: Key Differences

Though often used interchangeably, CVs and resumes are different documents with distinct purposes. Here are some of the key differences:


A resume is typically restricted to 1-2 pages, while a CV has no length limitations and can extend well beyond 2 pages. The length of your CV will depend on your level of experience and academic achievements. More experienced professionals tend to have longer CVs spanning 5+ pages.

Content Depth

Given its expansive length, a CV allows you to go into greater detail about your qualifications and achievements. The extended space allows you to include extensive lists of publications, presentations, awards, licenses and certifications.

Geographic Preference

Resumes are preferred in the United States, while CVs are favored in many European and Asian countries. Canada and Australia tend to use a mix of both. If applying for international positions, research the geographic preferences.


A resume summarizes professional experiences and skills tailored specifically to a particular job opening. The focus is on showcasing your fit to a specific employer’s needs. On the other hand, a CV is a comprehensive biographical statement that covers your entire career. The focus is on academic and professional achievements.


The sections of a resume and CV can vary slightly, with CVs providing more emphasis on publications, presentations, honors and awards. Resumes place more focus on showcasing skills aligned with the job description.

In summary, a CV provides greater freedom to document the full breadth of your career accomplishments. The aim is to construct an extensive record of your professional life.

Essential Sections of a CV

CV formats can vary, but these are the standard sections to include:

Personal Details

This section provides your fundamental personal identifiers like your name, address, phone number and email. For consistency, decide if you will include your middle name or just initial.

Your email address should be professional. Avoid nicknames or numbers.

Education and Qualifications

Starting from your bachelor’s degree, list your academic credentials in reverse chronological order. For each qualification, include:

  • Full name of degree/certification and field of study
  • Name of educational institution
  • Location city and country
  • Year completed or anticipated completion date

You can also include:

  • Your final grade or grade point average if it was high, eg. graduated Summa Cum Laude
  • Relevant coursework or dissertation/thesis titles
  • Academic honors, scholarships and awards

Do not include secondary school details unless particularly relevant.

Work Experience

This is the core section of your CV. Include your employment history in reverse chronological order, starting with your current or most recent position. For each role, mention:

  • Job title
  • Organization name and location
  • Employment dates (e.g. Jan 2020 – Present)
  • Key responsibilities and achievements

Tailor the duties and accomplishments to be relevant to the target job. Quantify your achievements with numbers and data to demonstrate impact.

For example:

Increased department sales by 30% over 2 years through executing structured outreach campaigns.

Skills and Achievements

This section provides a snapshot of your expertise. Include:

  • Technical skills: Proficiency with software, tools, instruments or machinery. List programming languages, specialized techniques and other relevant competencies.
  • Soft skills: Interpersonal attributes like communication, presentation, leadership and management. Provide examples of utilizing these skills.
  • Awards and honors: Prestigious grants, merit-based scholarships, or recognition received for your work.
  • Certifications: Professional credentials earned through examinations like CPA, PMP, CFA.

Publications and Conferences

In fields like research and academia where publishing work is valued, it merits its own section. Format your publications using the appropriate style guide for your industry, such as APA.


  • Authored and co-authored books and book chapters
  • Peer-reviewed journal articles
  • Conference papers and proceedings
  • Other articles published in magazines, websites or newspapers

Presentations at academic or industry conferences also demonstrate thought leadership.


Provide 2-3 professional references who can vouch for your qualifications. Include their name, job title, organization, phone, email, and relationship to you (e.g. former manager).

Get their consent before listing them. For physical mailing, include “References available upon request” instead.

Tips for Writing a Compelling CV

Follow these top tips for creating your CV:

Be Clear and Concise

Though CVs can be lengthy, be judicious in providing the right level of detail to keep the content focused and readable. Use clear, unambiguous language.

** quantify Achievements**

Quantify your accomplishments with numbers and data. For example, rather than saying “improved sales”, specify “improved sales by 30% over 2 years.” This demonstrates concrete results.

Use Action Verbs

pepper your CV with strong action verbs like “managed”, “led”, “spearheaded”, “devised”, etc. This adds impact.

Customize for the Role

Identify the must-have skills and requirements for your target job. Tailor your CV content to align with the specifics.

Proofread Extensively

Check for any spelling and grammar errors which can seriously hurt your chancess

Update Frequently

As you gain experience, add your new achievements and skills. Update your CV at least every quarter.

Consistent Formatting

Use the same formatting approach throughout for section headers, dates, and bullets. Neat, consistent formatting makes your CV look polished.

Common Mistakes to Avoid

While crafting your CV, be vigilant against these frequent pitfalls:


Avoid excessive wordiness. Use clear, succinct phrasing that conveys the essence. Remove ambiguous filler words. Be specific and direct.

Irrelevant Details

Do not include unnecessary personal information like age, race, religion, or photos unless customary for your country. Focus on professional qualifications only.

Unprofessional Contact Details

Avoid juvenile email addresses or handles with nicknames. Use a simple professional address instead.


Avoid sending the same generic CV to every job. Customize it to highlight skills relevant to each position. Research requirements beforehand.


Be truthful. Do not overinflate accomplishments or make misleading claims. This can come back to haunt you at background checks.

Stylistic Inconsistency

Maintaining a consistent style for bullets, dates, and formatting prevents your CV from appearing disorganized. Follow one style.

Making Your CV Stand Out

Use these advanced techniques to make your CV more compelling:

Incorporate Design Elements

Subtle use of color, dividers, icons or charts helps draw attention to key areas as appropriate for your industry. Avoid overdesigning.

Add a Profile Section

A professional summary outlines your top skills and expertise at the start. It provides an overview “elevator pitch”.

Integrate Keywords

Research keywords recruiters search for in your field and naturally incorporate them. This aids visibility.

Use Bullet Points

Bulleted lists help break up big blocks of text, making your content easily scannable.

Showcase Statistical Models or Frameworks

For technical roles, visuals demonstrating your statistical models or frameworks can demonstrate hard skills.

Explain Career Gaps

If you have gaps in your timeline, briefly explain them positively, eg: “Sabbatical for community service” or “leave of absence for family commitments.”

Add Testimonials

Including 1-2 testimonials from former managers or professors endorsing your skills can provide credibility.

Link to Portfolio

Provide links to online portfolios showcasing examples of your work like research papers, artwork, or projects.

Importance of Digital Presence

Beyond your CV, also ensure your LinkedIn profile and other online presences align and reinforce your personal brand.

Sync Online Profiles

Keep your CV consistent with your LinkedIn profile and other digital footprints. Avoid contradictory information.

Leverage Networks

A strong professional network like LinkedIn boosts visibility. Get endorsements and recommendations. Show you are connected.

Portfolio Site

A portfolio website with live samples of your work can demonstrate skills visually. Provide a link in your CV.


Crafting an attractive, well-targeted CV is a vital step to securing job interviews and advancing your career. The above best practices help you create an informative, results-driven CV tailored to your industry and target role.

A few key takeaways:

  • Showcase both technical expertise and soft skills relevant to the position
  • Quantify achievements and accomplishments with data
  • Maintain an updated, professional online presence in sync with your CV
  • Continuously expand your CV as you gain experience

With a strategically optimized CV and supporting digital footprint, you can maximize your chances of landing your dream job. The investment to polish your CV can pay major dividends for your career aspirations.